Tuesday 26 November 2013

Slow progress

Since getting ignition control sorted, progress on the project has been very slow. Mainly due to work commitments, holidays and spending time on other projects.

The main restriction to major progress has been the throttle body modification. I have switched my tactic again and decided to modify an existing bank of mc22 carburetors to act as throttle bodies rather than to modify the GSR throttle bodies to fit the mc22 engine. This would consist of machining out the carb venturi to create a smooth, unobstructed passage from carb inlet to butterfly valve, also blanking off the slide passage and float bowl and machining injector seats into the bodies after the butterfly valves. The advantages here being that the machining involved is within the scope of my own abilities on a manual machine simply because I don't trust other people's QC!
Since last posting I have procured a spare set of carbs to be modified and am currently trying to find a workshop I can use in my spare time to do the work.

As well as carbs, I've procured a spare fuel tank that can be modified to take an in-tank fuel pump and also procured the fuel pump from a Kawasaki ZX636R.

In the meantime, I have begun to tidy up the wiring loom to a more permanent standard using proper wiring connectors. A lambda sensor has been connected to provide input to the ECU.

I have also wired in the Koso dash into the existing loom and now have a fully functioning rev counter which takes it's input from the ECU. Installation on the bike was pretty straight-forward and consisted of some minor modification to the mounting bracket supplied with the clocks and bolted onto the old clock stay bracket. Wiring was also straight-forward with the majority of inputs being supplied through the stock 9-pin connector for the old clocks. This tidied up the wiring a nice bit as the additional inputs consist of
  • Constant 12V
  • Switched 12V
  • Fuel sensor
  • Coolant temp
  • Oil temp
  • Speed signal
Koso mounting bracket installed

Koso dash installed

Main wiring connected. It is still a mess to be tidied up closer to completion

I'm also trying to get the CBR600RR stick coils to fit but having issues with cylinder #2 clearance with the fan motor. The coil itself is just too long and sticks up too far. Anyone know of stick coils that are just 15-20mm shorter than those on a 2007 CBR600RR?

Sunday 8 September 2013

First ride on ignition control

Delayed a bit getting this up so apologies but things have been slow anyway and haven't been getting a lot of time to work on the bike.

First impressions of riding the bike after sorting out the RPM synch loss errors are all positive! The bike revs cleanly and pulls strong all the way to the limiter. I cannot say for certain if that is all due to the new ignition advance curve as I have been running open carbs for testing purposes. (Couldn't be arsed removing the airbox every time I had to go at anything near the carbs basically)

The ride has confirmed that the ignition control is now working perfectly so its ready to progress with the fuelling side of things. Thats a side that needs the most physical work done in terms of pump installation, throttle body manufacture/modification and full wiring so that may take some time yet. I neglected the fuelling side also as I didn't want to use money and time on it only to find the ignition wasn't feasable.

Data log extract from ride showing rev limiter

Monday 29 July 2013

Ignition Issues Sorted

I am delighted to say that after a much longer time than I had planned on, I have found all 17,800rpm within the microsquirt!!

As it turns out the internal noise filter settings that were the issue. They were causing more problems than they solved. I started with running the bike with higher than standard noise filter settings but immediately became clear that was the wrong way to go as the engine hit a limiter at only about 5-6k rpm. I then started reducing each noise filter a little at a time which gave slightly better results every time. Eventually turning them all off altogether got me very close to where I needed to be (16,800rpm) but it still wasn't enough. I was still getting synch loss errors at high rpm.

Further research suggested that simply soldering in a 10-20k resistor into each of the wires coming from the VR sensor should fix the problem. I tried a 10k resistor first and straight away the issue disappeared! Now the engine revs cleanly and smoothly all the way to the preset limiter every time with no synch loss errors recorded on the data logs.

Log below and a ride log and video will follow.

Log of static engine run to limiter showing no synch loss errors through the range

Monday 10 June 2013

Almost there

Before progressing any further with the injection side of things I wanted to make sure that the ignition control was working as expected throughout the range. That meant actually going out and riding the thing with the laptop plugged into the ECU datalogging while riding.

The first time I took the bike out I noticed straight away that it didn't seem to be revving as high or as freely as before. As I had no dash connected, I wasn't able to tell what the issue was until I pulled the datalog. The bike seemed to refuse to rev above 12,500rpm. After riding and logging some more times I was getting a clearer idea of what was happening. The power appeared to flatten out more as the revs grew higher and eventually there was just not enough power to pull anymore after 12,500rpm. At first I thought it was spark timing retard as the revs grew (hardware latency) but a quick test with the timing light debunked that theory. The small amount of retard I was seeing as the revs grew could easily be put down to lag in the timing light itself.

I left the problem simmer with me for about a week and while doing some research on dwell duration on the CBR coils and typical spark durations, I figured I had the root of the problem. The MS documentation suggested a typical max dwell duration of 3ms for most coils, so unable to measure the dwell on my coils I went with that number. Additionally, as I had not investigated the spark duration, I left it at its default value of 0.2ms. I discovered that the actual max dwell on the CBR coils was 6ms instead of 3ms. And I also found that typical "normal" spark durations run between 1ms and 2ms. MS works by trying to fit the max dwell duration int a revolution and if the period of a revolution reduces to below the sum of the max spark and dwell durations, it will reduce each duration proportionally to fit in the period. I plotted what was happening with the original numbers and the spark duration was quickly being squeezed down to numbers which would barely allow a spark to occur.

So I reset the dwell and spark durations and went for another ride. The difference was apparent straight away. The engine pulled as hard as it should to higher revs. Although I did stumble into another issue then. The RPM signal dropped at about 14,800rpm which cut spark. The signal was gone for 4 seconds before it reappeared and ignition kicked back in rather suddenly. This is likely to be just a noise filter setting in the microsquirts software but I have not had a chance to play with it since.

Datalog showing 4s period of RPM dropout and also a momentary signal dropout that happened just before the main one. That small downward spike just felt like a misfire at the time

I have not installed the CBR600RR COP just yet as I need to make sure ignition is working properly before ditching the HT leads that the timing light works off of. 

Saturday 13 April 2013


A bit late updating this but I am delighted to announce I have ignition!!!

I got my transistors in the post a while back so I built the coil driver module and had a crack at starting the bike. At first I was getting a whole pile of nothing, then a few backfires and then a dead battery. I figured I must have had the wrong cylinders at TDC when I calculated the base advance angle so I went back 180 degrees and tried again the next day. It seemed to be making an attempt at starting but couldnt quite get there.

Coil driver module temporarily plugged into the old CDI plug.

So I went back to the drawing board and discovered that a bit of ambiguity around the language for calculating base advance in the manual had made me measure the angle the wrong way around. I took a stab at an estimated angle and it fired up first time! I had set the advance to be fixed at 20 degrees BTDC so I checked with the timing light and found it was actually firing at 1 degree BTDC. It just took a moment to redefine the base advance less 19 degrees within the ECU and everything lined up perfectly after checking again with the timing light.

Testing in progress

I had purchased a Bluefox race ignition unit for the mc22 a while back and had one of the guys on the cb250.com forum map the ignition advance from it. Thanks to him, I was able to load in the Bluefox ignition map straight into the microsquirt table. The map is only 2D but it serves as a good base point until I get the fuelling sorted and then I can play with modifying it into a 3D map. The bluefox map is running with no issues now. I intend to ride the bike to test it out, make sure there are no signal dropouts or misfires at higher rpm and do some preliminary data logging but there are a few wires to tidy up first! Unfortunately, I have been travelling quite a bit lately so I've been behind on this project.

Screenshot of the ECU running the Bluefox map. The only gauges working correctly here are RPM, Ign advance & MAP

While running the bike on the Microsquirt ECU, I tried plugging the TachOut wire into the stock tachometer but the signal is clearly different. So rather than messing with the signal to get it to work, I used it as an excuse to pick up a Koso RX2N digital gauge! The installation of that will come at a later date.

Also, while browsing eBay one day, I happened across a set of CBR600RR ignition coils and harness for nice and cheap so I purchased. These are coil-on-plug so should tidy the engine area up quite nicely. Another advantage of the COPs is the lack of HT leads should minimise ignition "noise" in other signals going to the ECU. The wiring harness for the coils needed to be modified to allow for wasted spark firing. The coils should be installed shortly and I will update how they go.

Monday 28 January 2013

RPM Issue Solved!

Long time, no write! I let the project fall by the wayside for a few months until I was able to move the bike into a new workshop so I have just got back to it recently.

Since my last post, I seem to have solved the rpm signal issue which turned out to be deceptively simple as usual!
Starting at the beginning, I switched firmware on the ECU to MS/Extra which gave me access to extra diagnostics tools in order to try and solve the issue. Running the diagnostics on the trigger wheel signal showed up some interesting results. The diagnostics tool works by measuring the time gap between “events” and outputting the results as a bar graph. This allows the user to see how the ECU interprets the VR sensor signal and identify issues with noise or false signals. The ECU interprets an “event” as the when the VR voltage signal crosses 0V going positive and using the definition of the trigger wheel as set by the user, determines engine RPM and crank position. Below is a photo of the mc22 trigger wheel.
mc22 trigger wheel

An event happens any time a tooth approaches the sensor so the ECU should read 9 events followed by a gap. If the ECU is measuring the gap between events, it should see 8 gaps of relatively equal length (the length will vary due to compression effects) followed by a gap four times the length of the previous 8. However, when I ran the diagnostics tool at engine idle, it became clear why the ECU could not interpret the rpm signal. The diagnostics shows that the ECU was seeing only 7 relatively equal gaps, followed by a gap roughly twice as long and finally a gap about 3 times the length of the first 7. It was almost as if the last tooth had shifted one position later! Graph below for illustration.
Problematic TunerStudio Tooth Logger output at engine idle

I spent ages looking into the cause of this. I bought a cheap USB oscilloscope from EBay to look at the raw signal data from the VR sensor but it turned out to be useless as I misread the specifications and it only had an amplitude range of 1V! I also planned to build a VR conditioner circuit which would convert the VR signal to a square wave Hall signal before input to the Microsquirt ECU. This had been used by a few of the MS forumers to allow the Microsquirt to interpret long tooth trigger wheels. Thanks to EWflyer on the Microsquirt forum for pointing me in that direction!

A few weeks ago I discovered the Arduino board and bought one to play around with. I figured it might have some uses for this project, especially data acquisition and recording. I looked into using the Arduino as an oscilloscope but looking into it, it seemed slightly over my head for the time being. So I discovered then that I could use one of the most basic commands to have the Arduino convert an analogue voltage input to one of the Arduino pins to an integer number and send the number back to the laptop via the serial port. I could then use an auxiliary program to read the integer number stream and write the stream to a text file. The text file could then be opened in Excel and the data displayed on a graph. It is a crude and longer process than I would like but it works! The disadvantage was that it would only read the positive values of the VR signal so I could only display half the signal. For the purposes of identifying any potential issues with the signal, this was acceptable. I may be able to capture the full signal using the Arduino if I research it some more and play around with the code but that’s for another day.
Arduino board hooked up to the VR sensor

When cranking the engine, I was able to get the below plot from the Arduino. The signal looks just the way I would expect so no issues there. The acquisition rate isn’t high enough to identify noise but at the same time, the ECU has inbuilt noise filtering so as long as there is no major noise, it shouldn’t be an issue.
Plot generated from Arduino output

Armed with the confidence that there was nothing wrong with the VR signal, I went back to the microsquirt to see what could be done there. As it happened I solved the issue by accident! While cranking the ignition with the engine stop switch in “off” position, I recorded correct signals with the TunerStudio Tooth Logger.
TunerStudio Tooth Logger diagnostics output when cranking

Recording a data log of the engine cranking also showed a steady cranking rpm signal of ~360rpm without any dropouts! The ~5000rpm spike at the start can be ignored as the ECU will usually skip a certain amount of pulses when starting cranking to allow the signal to settle.
Consistent rpm signal logged at ~360rpm

So quite by accident and even though I was sure I had tried it before, I discovered the issue was simply interference with sharing the VR signal between the stock CDI and the Microsquirt. The next step is to wire up the Microsquirt to drive the coils and get the engine running with Microsquirt controlling the ignition timing and remove the stock CDI altogether. That way I will also be able to identify any issues with high rpm running, signal dropouts or misfiring, etc. Watch this space.